The World of Birdwing Butterflies

 

SCHOENBERGIA TITHONUS

IUCN conservation status category: INSUFFICIENTLY KNOWN.

A male of Schoenbergia tithonus, collected by Dr. Solomon M쥲 in Kapaur (= Fak Fak) in the Onin Peninsula remained the only known specimen for half a century. Following the discovery of a female of A. victoriae, the contemporary believed that the two specimens could represent the same species. The first actual female of S. tithonus was described by Oberth੮ 1885.

Some field notes from the Arfak Mountains by C. B. Pratt were published by Sir George Kenrick in a paper to the Entomological Society of London in 1910: "The day after we arrived (at the Arfak Mts.) we each took one specimen of the male - one fortunately being perfect. Soon after we noticed a tree overhanging a steep precipice, with a sheer drop of 500 ft. to the river below. Flying round and round this tree were males and females, more of the former than the latter. We offered the natives very good payment if they would go up with a net, but the tree was of a soft kind of wood, and being in such a dangerous position we could not persuade them to do so. We ourselves guarded the ridge every day, but the males never once left the tree, so after some time we had the tree cut down, thinking that the males would disperse and seek other flowering trees, but after the tree had fallen we never saw another male".

S. tithonus can be seen from sea level to around 1,250 m.

The exact distribution of tithonus is poorly known, as is its life history.

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S. tithonus misoolana

Auctor: Deslisle, 1985
Syn.: tithonus Haugum & Low, 1979
Distribution: Misool Is.
Etymology: Named after its type locality, Misool Is.
Notes:
Described forms:
none




S. tithonus waigeuensis

Auctor: Rothschild, 1897
Syn.: tithonus Oberth젱885, 1888
Syn.: tithonus Rippon, 1898
Syn.: waigieunsis Rippon, 1898
Syn.: waigiunsis Rippon, 1902
Distribution: Waigeo Is., Salwatty Is.
Etymology: Named after its type locality, Waigeo Is.
Notes:
Described forms:
none




S. tithonus dominici

Auctor: Sch䦦ler, 1999
Distribution: Irian Jaya; Tamrau Mts.; Mt. Kwoka, Mt. Irau.
Etymology:
Notes:
Described forms:
f.loc. erwini Sch䦦ler, 2001




S. tithonus misresiana

Auctor: Joicey & Noakes, 1915
Syn.: tithonus Kenrick, 1911
Syn.: prominens Joicey & Noakes, 1915 (nom. illeg., female sphalm.)
Syn.: tithonus D'Abrera, 1971, 1975
Distribution: Irian Jaya; Anggi Lake District, Arfak Mts.
Etymology: misresiana = less bent, less turned.
Notes:
Described forms:
mf. misresiana Joicey & Noakes, 1915
mf. lowi Haugum 1979
mf. ichwani Kobayashi & Koiwaya, 1980
mf. crepusculum Parrott & Deslisle, 1986
mf. confluenta von Kn䧥n, 1997
mf. aurata Sch䦦ler, 2001
mf. deslislei Sclavo, 2008
mf. gaucheti Deslisle & Sclavo, 2008
ff. misresiana Joicey & Noakes, 1915
ff. minima Haugum & Low, 1979
ff. rubicunda Parrott & Deslisle, 1986




S. tithonus cytherea

Auctor: Kobayashi & Koiwaya, 1980
Distribution: Irian Jaya; Enarotali Nature Reserve (altitude 1,800 m), possibly also in Wamena (3 males, 3 females in coll. I.Toeante)
(ref. Kobayashi & Koiwaya, 1980).
Etymology: Kythereia was a name for Afrodite, the goddess of love.
Notes:
Described forms:
mf. nicolasi Deslisle & Sclavo, 2008




S. tithonus wasiorensis

Auctor: Deslisle, 2007
Syn.: - - -
Distribution: Irian Jaya; Wondiboi Range [Pegunungan Wondiwoi], Manokwari district, Wasior sub-district, elevation 800-1400 m.
Etymology: Named after its type locality, Wasior.
Notes: Described by Mr Deslisle as a f.loc. of  O. (S.) tithonus tihonus.
Described forms:
none




S. tithonus tithonus

Auctor: de Haan, 1840
Syn.: prominens Joicey & Noakes, 1915
Distribution: Irian Jaya; Onin Peninsula, Wanggar River, Sudirman (=Snow) Mts.,
Otakwa River.
Etymology: Tithonus was the consort of Aurora, goddess of the dawn.
The name of Tithonus is often used as a symbolic of decrepit old age.
Notes:
Described forms:
none




S. tithonus makikoae

Auctor: Morita, 1998
Distribution: Irian Jaya; Timuka [Timika] (a small town north of Amamapare).
Etymology:
Notes: Matsuka (2001) treated S.tithonus makikoae as a synonym of
S.tithonus tithonus.
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Described forms:
none



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