The World of Birdwing Butterflies

 

TROIDES HALIPHRON

Troides haliphron is a small Troides with several well defined subspecies.

In most of its distribution area haliphron appears to be common, many places occurring in such abundance that it outnumbers any other butterfly species.

Tsukada & Nishiyama (1980, 1982) claimed the immature stages of haliphron to be unknown, obviously being unaware that Ribbe made some descriptions as early as 1890. All stages were figured by Igarashi in 1979, a year before Tsukada & Nishiyama' publication.

During a visit to Kabia Island, Ribbe found haliphron to be abundant in the coastal areas. He followed a female into the undergrowth. On a climber - an unidentified Aristolochia - Ribbe found pupae 'under every second leaf'. For more information, reference is made to Haugum & Low (1983).
 

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T. haliphron haliphron

Auctor: Boisduval, 1836
Syn.: amphimedon Doubleday, 1846 nec Cramer, 1779
Syn.: pallens Oberthür, 1879
Syn.: halliphron D'Abrera, 1975
Syn.: ? pistor Rothschild, 1896 (see notes under T.haliphron pistor)
Syn.: pallens Tsukada & Nishiyama, 1980
Distribution: S. Sulawesi, Salayar Is., Tanahjampea Is.
Etymology:
Notes:
Described forms:
mf. bauermanni Röber, 1885
ff. pallens Oberthür, 1879 (syn.: palleus Rippon, 1906)




T. haliphron pistor

Auctor: Rothschild, 1896
Syn.: piston Rippon, 1906
Syn.: pallens Okano & Ohkura, 1980
Distribution: Kalao Is., Jampea Is., ?Bonerate Is.
Etymology: Pistor = baker, miller.
Notes: Haugum & Low (1983) regarded pistor to be a f.loc. of
T.haliphron haliphron.
Described forms:
none


T. haliphron kronos

Auctor: Kobayashi, 1987
Distribution: Lombok
Etymology: Kronos was a god of agriculture in pre-Hellenic mythology. He was the
youngest of the 12 Titans and son of Uranus (Heaven) and Gaea (Earth).
Notes: Described as T. haliphron naias f.loc. kronos.
Matsuka (2001) treated T.haliphron kronos as a synonym of
T.haliphron naias.
Described forms:
none



T. haliphron naias

Auctor: Doherty, 1891
Syn.: sambavana Doherty, 1891
Syn.: socrates Staudinger, 1891 & 1893
Syn.: sambawanus Rothschild, 1895 (emend.)
Syn.: nais Pagenstecher, 1896
Syn.: sambawana de Nicéville & Elwes, 1897
Syn.: nerias Rippon, 1906 (lapsus)
Syn.: antilochus Fruhstorfer, 1913
Syn.: sumbavana Fruhstorfer, 1913
Syn.: nais Fruhstorfer, 1913 (lapsus)
Syn.: naies Kurosawa, 1966 (lapsus)
Syn.: antilochus Tsukada & Nishiyama, 1980
Distribution: Sumba, Flores, Larantuka, Adonara, Lomblen (=Lembata), Pantar,
Alor, ?Solor
Etymology: Naias = a water-nymph. Name derived from naiades - 'those who
are swimming'.
Notes:
Described forms:
mf. sambavana Doherty, 1892 (= sambawnus Rothschild, 1895)




T. haliphron socrates

Auctor: Staudinger, 1891
Syn.: naias Rothschild, 1895
Syn.: pancasila Kobayashi, 1987
Distribution: Wetar Is. (not Sumbawa Is. as stated in Rothschild's original
description).
Etymology: Named after Greek philosopher Socrates (469-399 B.C.).
Notes: Haugum & Low (1983) regarded socrates to be a f.loc. of
T.haliphron naias.
Described forms:
none




T. haliphron celebensis

Auctor: Wallace, 1865
Syn.: celebensis Jordan, 1908 (as Papilio criton celebensis).
Syn.: Troides helena hephaestus hybrid, Tsukakada & Nishiyama, 1980
Distribution: S. Sulawesi; Ujung Pandang (=Macassar); Patunuanasi - Putunasi,
Putumau, Palopo
Etymology: Named after its type locality, Celebes (= Sulawesi).
Notes: The status of this taxon is uncertain. Tsukada & Nishiyama (1980) suggested
the taxon to be a natural hybrid between T.helena hephaestus and another
species. Kobayashi & Koiwaya (1981) and Okano & Ohkura (1981) raised the taxon to specific rank. Haugum & Low (1983) suggested it to be a natural hybrid between T.haliphron haliphron and T.helena hephaestus. The student is recommended to study their argumentation given in their 'A Monograph of the Birdwing Butterflies'. See also notes under T.haliphron selayarensis.
As a good number of specimens have been collected in recent years, this author holds the view that the theory of celebensis being a hybrid should be abandoned.
Described forms:
none




T. haliphron selayarensis

Auctor: Kobayashi & Koiwaya, 1981
Syn.: celebensis Okano & Ohkura, 1981 nec Wallace, 1865
Distribution: Salayar Is., ?Jampea Is.
Etymology: Named after its type locality, Salayar Is. (often misspelt as 'Selayar').
Notes: The status of this taxon is uncertain. Kobayashi & Koiwaya (1981) described
the taxon as a subspecies of T.celebensis. Haugum & Low (1983) suggested it to be a natural hybrid between T.haliphron haliphron and T.oblongomaculatus thestius. The student is recommended to study their argumentation given in their 'A Monograph of the Birdwing Butterflies'. See also notes under T.haliphron celebensis.
As a good number of specimens have been collected in recent years, this author holds the view that the theory of selayarensis being a hybrid should be abandoned.
Described forms:
none




T. haliphron purahu

Auctor: Kobayashi, 1987
Distribution: Batuata Is.
Etymology:
Notes:
Described forms:
ff. staudiphron Rumbucher & Schaffler, 2004
  ff. pseudostaudingeri Rumbucher & Schaffler, 2004
  ff. schmidti Rumbucher & Schaffler, 2004




T. haliphron bellwoni

Auctor: Neukirchen, 1993
Distribution: Lucipara Is.
Etymology: Named after Mr. Heinz Bellwon.
Notes:  
Described forms:
none




T. haliphron eleonorae

Auctor: Rumbucher and Shchaffler, 2004
Distribution: Buton Is.
Etymology: Named after Mrs. Eleonore Schmidbauer.
Notes: Discovered 1991. The specimens shown in this web site
  are from the first series ever collected of this taxon.
Described forms:
none



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