The World of Birdwing Butterflies

Special thanks go to...

Mr. Lars Ove Hansen, Zoological Museum at Oslo, Norway, for his great assistance in searching for and obtaining articles for me. Being an amateur it is very difficult to obtain information about new papers being published. My local library was very reluctant to assist me, so without the help from Lars Ove this web site would have been much less complete.

The late Mr. Jan Haugum, Velje, Denmark, who back in 1991 sent me several articles of great interest and thereby encouraged me to continue the study of the birdwing butterflies. I would also like to mention that Mr Haugum is the senior author of "A Monograph of the Birdwing Butterflies". This is the most important work ever published on birdwings. Without its wealth of information this web site would never have seen the light of day.

Mr. Torbjedersen, Ŭesund, Norway, who in the mid-1990s donated his collection of birdwing butterflies to me. This collection included the male of Schoenbergia paradisea paradisea and the female of Troides minos shown in this web site.

Mr. Ian Davis, Barongarook, Vic., Australia, who supplied images of Aetheoptera victoriae isabellae (male and female), A. alexandrae (male and female), Ornithoptera priamus poseidon ff. kirschi, a very interesting unnamed female form of O. priamus poseidon, a female of O. priamus caelestis and a pair of Schoenbergia chimaera chimaera.

Mr. Mike Pennington, Georgetown, Ont., Canada, for sending about several scientific papers which I were not aware of. Mike has also given valuable suggestions for updating the Check-list.

Mr. Jan Petersen, Puerto Princesa, Philippines, (Palawan Lepidoptera Farm) for providing valuable field notes on Trogonoptera trojana.

Mr. Anthony W. Darby, Dunblane, Scotland, for supplying me with several scientific papers, including his own paper on Ornithoptera 'allottei', as well as his articles published by Lepidoptera Group 68.

Mr. Anatoly Kiselev, St.Petersburg, Russian Federation, for supplying me with several photos from his own collection, including a male of A. allottei.

Mr. Mike van Buskirk, Seattle, WA, USA, for supplying me with several more scientific papers.

Mr. Gilles Deslisle, St.Raymond, P.Q., Canada, for supplying me with several scientific papers including many of his own papers and for providing me with a copy of his Revision of the Genus Ornithoptera. Mr. Deslisle also supplied several new photos; of Aetheoptera victoriae reginae mf brossardi, Ornithoptera aeacus mf nadiae, O. croesus wallacei, Schoenbergia goliath ukihidei, S. tithonus misoolana, Ripponia hypolitus sulaensis ff semimascula, Troides helena rayae and T. magellanus cuyonensis.

Mr. Abiel Neo, of the Butterfly Interest Group of Singapore, for his comments on T. brookiana mollumar, as well as images of this subspecies.

Mr. Harry King, Mason, MI, USA, for supplying me with several scientific papers that were unknown to me.

Mr. Jan Pasternak, Brno, Czech Republic, for supplying me with his work on O. meridionalis from Kamrau Bay.

Mr. William Garthe, Peru, IL, USA, for sending me several new photos; Zeunera alexandrae, Aetheoptera victoriae maramasikensis, Ornithoptera priamus pronomus, O. priamus euphorion f weylandi, O. priamus poseidon gynandromorphs, O. croesus helios, Schoenbergia goliath goliath, S. goliath sorongensis, S. chimaera flavidor, S. tithonus dominici, S. tithonus cytherea, S. tithonus makikoae, S. paradisea galatea, S. paradisea occidentalis, S. paradisea chrysanthemum, S. paradisea sabinae, S. paradisea flavescens, S. paradisea detanii and S. meridionalis tarunggarensis.

Mr. Mike J. Howlett, Gravesend, England, for sending me many photos of subspecies and forms that I was missing. Mike has now provided more than 50 photos for this website - Aetheoptera victoriae isabellae, A. victoriae archeri, Ornithoptera priamus boisduvali, O. priamus bornemanni, O. priamus wituensis, O. priamus miokensis, O. priamus urvillianus, Schoenbergia goliath huebneri, S. paradisea arfakensis, S. paradisea flavescens, S. paradisea borchi, S. paradisea paradisea, S. meridionalis tarunggarensis, Trogonoptera brookiana albescens, T. brookiana toshikii, T. brookiana natunensis, Troides amphrysus niasicus, T. miranda miranda, T. miranda hayami, T. andromache marapokensis, T. andromache nishikawai, T. darsius, T. plato, T. helena tabuchii, T. helena mosychlus, T. helena nereides, T. oblongomaculatus oblongomaculatus, T. oblongomaculatus asartia, T. dohertyi, T. minos, T. aeacus szechwanus, T. aeacus insularis, T. aeacus formosanus and T. magellanus magellanus.

Mr Jean-Serge Gigu貥, Montreal, P.Q., Canada, for sending me photo of Schoenbergia goliath titan (=supremus) mf confluenta.

Mr Frederik Goussey, Li觥, Belgium, for sending me photo of Aetheoptera allotei and Ornithoptera croesus lydius ff reducta.

Mr. Michael Schlemm, Hannover, Germany, for supplying me with several scientific papers that were unknown to me. 

Mr. John Nielsen, Buderim, QLD, Australia, for supplying new photos of Schoenbergia goliath ?supremus, S. goliath titan, S. rothschildi, S. paradisea arfakensis, S. paradisea borchi and S. meridionalis meridionalis, as well as interesting photos of Ornithoptera priamus richmondia in its natural habitats.

Mr Kyi-yein Sem, Australia, for sending me photos of Aetheoptera victoriae isabellae and Schoenbergia chimaera chimaera.

Mr. Robert R. Herd, New Zealand, for sending me photos of Trogonoptera brookiana brookiana.

Mr. Hu Shaoji (Pierce Honn), Kunming, Yunnan, China, for sending me photos of an unnamed form of Trogonoptera brookiana ?trogon.


Technical information

Most photos in this web site were taken by the author using his good, old Nikon F-401 camera. The photos were taken without use of any tripod or lamps. Most photos were taken during the winter 1998-1999, although a few were shot during January - March 2000. Doing photography outdoors during wintertime was a pretty cold experience at the author's home at 59o45N. Most of the time the temperature was well below freezing point and the job often took place in snowfall and with a disturbing wind. As you can clearly see, this author is not a professional photographer. But I still hope the photos - combined with the text - can be of help for the students.
It should also be noted that during the last years dozens of new photos have been received from collectors around the world. These photos make a valuable contribution to the website.


Can you help me?

Do you find any obvious errors in my web site?

For many of the species and subspecies I do not know the meaning of the scientific ("Latin") name. In some cases I have not been able to find the auctor of the subspecies. Please let me know if you can assist me in the matter.

Do you have additional information that you would like to share with me?

As you can see from this site, I am missing images of several subspecies and many forms. If you have photos of any of those - or other interesting forms - I will be happy to hear from you. Send me a mail, please, but do not enclose any attachments. Due to security reasons I never open attachments. So if you have photos of interest I have to ask you to send them to me by ordinary mail - I will advice my mail address when you contact me. The pictured specimens should be photographed on a white background. You should send me your photos as paper photos, so that I can scan the photos myself. Please remember to advice whatever collecting data you might have for the specimens; region of locality should be the minimum data.

If I find your photos of interest, I will include them to this web site. In this case I will certainly credit you properly in my web site, mentioning who has supplied the photo.

If you in any way can help me to improve this web site, please send me a mail to (new e-mail address to be announced)


Tony Nagypal



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