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The World of Birdwing Butterflies

 

Cited literature

Books

Haugum & Low: "A Monograph of the Birdwing Butterflies". Vol. 1 The genus Ornithoptera.
Scandinavian Science Press Ltd., 1978-79. 308 pp. 12+2 colour plates. 277 text figures. Distribution maps to all species and subspecies. Drawings of genitalia.
Haugum & Low: "A Monograph of the Birdwing Butterflies". Vol. 2. The genera Trogonoptera, Ripponia & Troides.
Scandinavian Science Press Ltd., 1982-85. 356 pp. 16 colour plates. 437 text figures. Distribution maps to all species and subspecies. Drawings of genitalia.
Haugum & Low's Monograph represents the most comprehensive book published over the Birdwing Butterflies. Although many new subspecies and forms have been described after the publication of the Monograph, it still stands as the basic reference work over the birdwings. The authors give very detailed descriptions of all species and subspecies. Taxonomic questions are discussed thoroughly, and the Monograph provides a much needed revision on the taxonomy of birdwing butterflies.

 

D'Abrera: "Birdwing Butterflies of the World".
Lansdowne Press, Melbourne, 1975. 260 pp. More than 300 colour plates. 1 loose map.
Many excellent colour plates.

 

Ohya: "Birdwing Butterflies".
Kodansha, Tokyo, 1983. 332 pp, incl. 136 colour plates. Many text figures (mainly maps).
Colour plates of the usual high Japanese quality. Text in Japanese with English summary.

 

Sumiyoshi: "Birdwing Butterflies of the Genus Ornithoptera (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)".
Osaka Museum of Natural History. 1989. 80 pp. 70 colour plates. Maps.
Text in Japanese with rather short English summary.

 

Parsons: "Butterflies of the Bulolo - Wau Valley".
Bishop Museum, Honolulu. 1991. 280 pp incl 22 colour plates and 3 b/w plates.
Although this is a book covering all families of butterflies, it provides some interesting field observations on the birdwing butterflies occurring in the Bulolo - Way Valley, PNG.

 

Pasternak: "Fluttering Encounters in the Amazing Archipelago".
Jan Pasternak, Brno. 2000. 136 pp. 202 colour photos.
With photos of living birdwings of New Guinea, Sulawesi and Java in their natural surroundings. Photos also of the early stages of many species. Text includes notes on rainforests and environment conservation, as well as field notes from 30 years of field studies in the region.

 

Tsukada & Nishiyama: "Butterflies of the South East Asian Islands", volume 1. Papilionidae.
Plapac Co., Tokyo. 1982 (Japanese edition published 1980). 457 pp (whereof 40 pages about birdwings) incl. 166 colour plates (whereas birdwings occupying 35 of them). Distribution maps to all species. Drawings of genitalia.
An interesting book covering the Papilionidae west of New Guinea. While Western writers often emphasize conservation and protection of the birdwings in their publications, Japanese authors show less reluctance to speak about collecting or commercial trade. This gives books like this one a different approach to the fascinating story of birdwing butterflies.

 

Collins & Morris: "Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World. The IUCN Red Data Book".
IUCN, Gland and Cambridge. 1985. 403 pp. 8 colour plates.
Giving very valuable notes on Troides andromache, Troides prattorum, Troides dohertyi, Schoenbergia tithonus, Schoenbergia rothschildi, Schoenbergia chimaera, Schoenbergia paradisea, Schoenbergia meridionalis, Aetheoptera alexandrae, Ornithoptera aesacus and Ornithoptera croesus, such as 'habitat and ecology', 'threats' and 'conservation measures'.

 

Matsuka: "Natural History of Birdwing Butterflies".
Matsuka Shuppa, Tokyo. 2001. 368 pp incl 212 colour pages/plates. Many text figures. Maps to each species.
A fine work filled with photos never seen before. All birdwing species are shown alive in their natural habitats. There are incredible photos of locations from India and Sri Lanka in the west to Philippines in the north and the Solomon Islands in the east. There are also superb colour photos of ova, larvae and pupae of all species. On top of everything there are 34 colour plates of larval foodplants. The author also offers a special section with interesting notes from his many years in the field.

 

Hutacharern, Cunningham, Choldumrongkul, Sawai & Eungwijarnpanya: "Identification Guide for Regulated Insects".
Integrated Promotion Technology, Bangkok. 2001. 157 pp incl 66 colour plates.
A presentation by the Royal Forest Department of Thailand on threatened lepidoptera and coleoptera, including the birdwings. Text in Thai.

 

Ride, Sabrosky, Bernardi & Melville: "International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, third edition".
International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature, London, and University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 1985. 338 + XX pp.
The Code on Zoological Nomenclature.

 

 

Papers

Attal: "Note sur Ornithoptera teucrus. άes de Biak & Schouten (Indonesie)".
Bulletin de la Societ頓ciences Nat. 1988.
Raising Ornithoptera priamus teucrus to subspecific rank. Describing Ornithoptera priamus teucrus mf barbarossa for the first time.

 

Blandin: ɴude d'Ornithoptera priamus admiralitatis".
Alexanor. 1969.
Describing Ornithoptera priamus admiralitatis mf moinieri for the first time.

 

Borch & Schmid: "On Ornithoptera priamus caelestis, demophanes and boisduvali".
Journal of the Lepidoptersists' Society. 
Notes on three subspecies of Ornithoptera priamus.

 

Borch & Schmid: "The life cycle of Ornithoptera paradisea".
Journal of the Lepidoptersists' Society. 1975.
Describing the early stages of Schoenbergia paradisea.

 

Calderara: "A new subspecies of Ornithoptera victoriae from Choiseul, Solomon Islands".
Proceedings and transactions of the British Entomological and Natural History Society. 1984.
Describing Aetheoptera victoriae archeri for the first time.

 

D'Abrera, Doggett & Parker: "A new race of Trogonoptera brookiana Wallace from West Malaysia".
Victorian Naturalist. 1976.
Describing Trogonoptera brookiana mollumar for the first time.

 

Darby: "The female genitalia of the Birdwing Butterflies, part 1".
Lepidoptera Group 68. Vejle. 1982.
Showing female genitalia of T. helena cerberus, O. priamus richmondia, O. priamus arruana, T. brookiana albescens.

 

Darby: "The female genitalia of the Birdwing Butterflies, part 2".
Lepidoptera Group 68. Vejle. 1983.
Showing female genitalia of O. goliath procus, T. amphrysus ruficollis, T. a. flavicollis, T. miranda miranda, T. m. neomiranda, T. cuneifera paeninsulae, T. helena cerberus, T. h. hephaestus, T. oblongomaculatus oblongomaculatus, T. o. bouruensis, T. o. papuensis, T. aeacus aeacus, T. a. thomsonii, T. aeacus formosanus, T. rhadamantus rhadamantus, T. r. dohertyi, T. r. plateni, T. vandepolli vandepolli, T. v. honrathiana, T. criton, T. darsius, T. haliphron haliphron, T. h. socrates, T. h. iris, T. h. naias, T. h. pallens, T. prattorum, T. magellanus sonani, T. hypolitus hypolitus.

 

Darby: "On the status of Ornithoptera meridionalis tarunggarensis".
Papilio International. Vejle. 1985.
Confirming ssp. tarunggarensis belongs to O. paradisea, not O. meridionalis as suggested by Hancock (1982).

 

Darby: "Ornithoptera 'allottei', a natural hybrid of O.victoriae and O.priamus urvillianus".
Bulletin of the Amateur Entomologists' Society. 1994.
On the hybrid O.allottei, with reference to the experiments of Mr Ray Straatman.

 

Deslisle: "Nouvelle sous-esp裥 chez Ornithoptera tithonus de l' Miso쬠Indonesie.
The Canadian Entomologist. 1985.
Describing Ornithoptera tithonus misoolana for the first time.

 

Deslisle: "Nouvelle sous-esp裥 chez Troides miranda".
Bulletin de la Societ頓ciences Nat. 1988.
Describing Troides miranda annae for the first time.

 

Deslisle: "A new subspecies of Troides vandepolli".
Papilio International. 1989.
Describing Troides vandepolli parrottei for the first time.

 

Deslisle: "Description of the male Ornithoptera (Schoenbergia) tithonus misoolana".
Bulletin de la Societ頎at. 1989.
Describing the male of Schoenbergia tithonus misoolana for the first time.

 

Deslisle: "Nouvelle sous-esp裥 chez Troides helena du Belitung, Indonesie".
Bulletin de la Societ頍 Sciences Nat. 1991.
Describing Troides helena rayae for the first time.

 

Deslisle: "Nouvelle sous-esp裥 chez Ornithoptera croesus du l' Mandioli, Indonesie".
Bulletin de la Societ頓ciences Nat. 1991.
Describing Ornithoptera croesus wallacei for the first time.

 

Deslisle: "Une forme femelle inedite chez Ripponia hypolitus sulaensis".
Bulletin de la Societ頍 Naturelles de l'ouest de la France. 1991.
Describing Ripponia hypolitus sulaensis ff. semimascula for the first time.

 

Deslisle: "Nouvelle sous-esp裥 chez Troides helena et Troides amphrysus du sud de Sumatra, Indonesie, et notes concernant les esp裥s relatives".
Bulletin de la Societ頍 Sciences Nat. 1993.
Describing Troides helena dempoensis and Troides amphrysus centralis for the first time.

 

Deslisle: "Nouvelle forme femelle chez Troides oblongomaculatus papuensis".
Lambillionea. 1995.
Describing Troides oblongomaculatus papuensis ff jennyae for the first time.

 

Deslisle: "Nouvelle forme m⬥ chez Ornithoptera (Aetheoptera) victoriae".
Lambillionea. 1995.
Describing Ornithoptera victoriae mf brossardi for the first time.

 

Deslisle: "Nouvelle forme m⬥ chez Ornithoptera aesacus".
Lambillionea. 1995.
Describing Ornithoptera aesacus mf nadiae for the first time.

 

Deslisle: "Description of the male Ornithoptera (Schoenbergia) goliath ukihidei".
Butterflies 12. 1995.
Describing the male of Schoenbergia goliath ukihidei for the first time.

 

Deslisle: "A new female form of Ornithoptera croesus lydius".
Butterflies 15. 1996.
Describing Ornithoptera croesus lydius ff jeanne-d'arcae for the first time.

 

Deslisle: "Nouvelle forme femelle chez Troides oblongomaculatus papuensis".
Lambillionea. 1996.
Describing Troides oblongomaculatus papuensis ff jennyae.

 

Deslisle: "Zeunera: A new subgenus in the genus Ornithoptera Boisduval 1832 for species alexandrae Rothschild 1907".
Lambillionea. 2001.
Describing the new subgenus Zeunera.

 

Deslisle: "A Taxonomic Revision of the "Birdwing Butterflies of Paradise", genus Ornithoptera, based on the adult morphology".
Lambillionea, 2004 : 4 D飥mbre suppl魥nt. 96 pp + 51 plates.
A complete revision of the genera Ornithoptera (Aetheoptera, Zeunera, Ornithoptera, Schoenbergia), downgrading 29 subspecies to local forms (f.loc.) and suggesting 5 synonyms.
With description of new local forms; O. priamus poseidon f.loc. misoollae, O. priamus poseidon f.loc. kofiauensis, O. priamus poseidon f.loc. garainaensis, O. priamus demophanes f.loc. goodenoughensis, O. priamus urvilleanus f.loc. sapphirinus and O. priamus urvilleanus f.loc. cyaneus.
Also with description of individual forms; Troides andromache mf pseudotrogonoptera, Schoenbergia goliath f.loc. supremus ff amandae, S. goliath procus mf moustacheus, S. chimaera mf aureosedulum, S. tithonus mf sineaurum, S. meridionalis mf sclavoi, Ornithoptera croesus croesus ff bahmeli, Ornithoptera croesus croesus f.loc. wallacei mf foli, O. priamus priamus mf aureofasciata, O. priamus priamus ff obscurus, O. priamus euphorion mf & ff weylandi, O. priamus arruana ff pseudohecuba, O. priamus hecuba ff pseudoarruana, O. priamus poseidon mf & ff ishigakii, O. priamus urvilleanus mf kamei, A. victoriae rubianus mf ohyai.

 

Deslisle: "Straatmana: A replacement name for the subgenus Zeunera Deslisle 2001".
Lambillionea, 2007.
Proposing Straatmana as a replacement name for the subgenus Zeunera.

 

Deslisle: "New local form of Ornithoptera (Schoenbergia) ssp t. tithonus de Haan, 1840, from Wasior Dist., Wondiboi Mts., Irian Jaya, Indonesia".
Lambillionea, 2007.
Describing new local form Ornithoptera (Schoenbergia) tithonus tithonus f.loc. wasiorensis.

 

Deslisle: "A new male form of O. (A.) v. victoriae Gray 1856".
Lambillionea, 2008.
Describing new form Ornithoptera (Aetheoptera) victoriae victoriae mf. gousseyi.

 

Deslisle: "A new local form of Ornithoptera (Schoenbergia) ssp paradisea arfakensis Joicey & Noakes 1916, from Wasior Dist., Irian Jaya, Indonesia".
Lambillionea, 2008.
Describing new local form Ornithoptera (Schoenbergia) paradisea arfakensis f.loc. wondiboiensis.

 

Deslisle & Sclavo: "New individual forms of the genus Ornithoptera Boisduval".
Lambillionea, Supplement III, 2008.
Describing 23 new forms of Ornithoptera; O.goliath f letiranti, f subalbus, f. gottsi, f. jeromei, f. goudreaulti; O.chimaera f. dioni; O.tithonus f. deslislei, f. gaucheti, f. nicolasi; O.rothschildi f. fabricei, f. mariejeanneae, O.paradisea f. defayettei, f. pseudomeridionalis; O.meridionalis f. odileae, O.croesus f. perroni, f. laplantei, f. agatheae; O.priamus f. detonnancouri, f. viridodentis, f. aureoradians, f. viridocoronae; O.victoriae f. julesi, f. belai.

 

Gayck, S.: "Zucht von Troides helena cerberus aus Thailand (Insel Phuket)".
Entomologische Zeitung, 102 : 73-92. 1992.
Describing the early stages of Troides helena cerberus from Phuket Is.

 

Goussey, F.: "A new described female form of Ornithoptera croesus lydius".
Lambillionea,  CV, 4, Dec 2005.
Describing Ornithoptera croesus lydius ff reducta for the first time.

 

Hancock: "A note on the status of Ornithoptera meridionalis tarunggarensis".
Australian Entomological Magazine, 1982.
Suggesting ssp. tarunggarensis belongs to O. paradisea.

 

Hanefusa: "On a new subspecies of Orn. ithoptera goliath from Yapen Is., Indonesia".
Futao 15. 1994.
Describing Schoenbergia goliath ukihidei for the first time.

 

Haugum: "Ray Straatman. Some personal reminiscenses".
Papilio International. Vejle. 1987.
Ray Straatman in memoriam.

 

Haugum (ed.): "Ornithoptera allottei - a natural hybrid".
Papilio International. 1990.
On the so-called Ornithoptera allottei.



Haugum & Low: "The sub-species and forms of the tailed Birdwing Ornithoptera paradisea Staud.".
Entomologist's Rec. J. Var. 1974.
Describing Ornithoptera (Schoenbergia) paradisea borchi for the first time.

 

Haugum & Low: "The Ornithoptera updated".
Tokurana. 1981.
Describing Ornithoptera croesus lydius mf watsoni, O. priamus poseidon ff akakeoides and O. priamus poseidon ff pseudotroides for the first time.

 

Hayami: "A new subspecies of Troides amphrysus from Tioman Is. and Aur Is., Malaysia".
Transactions of the Himeji Natural History Association. 1994.
Describing Troides amphrysus arkumene for the first time.

 

Hayami: "A new subspecies of Ornithoptera croesus from Kasiruta Is., Indonesia".
Transactions of the Himeji Natural History Association. 1994.
Describing Ornithoptera croesus helios for the first time.

 

Hayami & Kobayashi: "A new subspecies of Troides helena from Hong Kong".
Transactions of the Himeji Natural History Association. 1994.
Describing Troides helena tabuchii for the first time.

 

Howarth: "A list of the type-specimens of Ornithoptera in the British Museum (Natural History).
Journal of the British Museum (Natural History). 1977.

 

Joicey & Talbot: "New Lepidoptera from the Schouten Islands".
Trans. ent. Soc. London. 1916.
Describing Ornithoptera priamus teucrus for the first time.

 

Jumalon: "Notes on Trogonoptera trojana of Palawan - Philippines".
Journal of the Lepidopterists튓ociety. 1967.
Notes on the history and behaviour of Trogonoptera trojana.

 

Kobayashi: "Ornithoptera (Schoenbergia) meridionalis".
Transactions of the Himeji Natural History Association. 1981.
Giving diagnostic characters for Schoenbergia meridionalis meridionalis and S. meridionalis tarunggarensis".

 

Kobayashi: "A new subspecies of Ornithoptera priamus from Yapen Is. Irian Jaya, Indonesia".
Transactions of the Himeji Natural History Association. 1994.
Describing Ornithoptera priamus kasandra for the first time.

 

Kobayashi & Hayami: "A new subspecies of Troides amphrysus from Babi Is., Sumatra, Indonesia".
Transactions of the Himeji Natural History Association. 1994.
Describing Troides amphrysus odeipus for the first time.

 

Kobayashi & Koiwaya: "A new subspecies of Ornithoptera paradisea from West Irian".
Transactions of the Himeji Natural History Association. 1979.
Describing Schoenbergia paradisea chrysanthemum for the first time.

 

Kobayashi & Koiwaya: "A new subspecies of Troides oblongomaculatus from Buru Island, Indonesia".
Transactions of the Himeji Natural History Association. 1979.
Describing 'Troides oblongomaculatus ohzui' for the first time.

 

Kobayashi & Koiwaya: "A new species of Ornithoptera from Irian Jaya".
Transactions of the Himeji Natural History Association. 1978.
Describing Ornithoptera akakeae for the first time.

 

Kobayashi & Koiwaya: "Ornithoptera (Schoenbergia) tithonus with descriptions of a new subspecies and a new form".
Transactions of the Himeji Natural History Association. 1980.
Describing Schoenbergia tithonus cytherea and S. tithonus misresiana mf ichwani for the first time.

 

Kobayashi & Koiwaya: "Troides celebensis status nova, with descriptions of its new subspecies".
Transactions of the Himeji Natural History Association. 1981.
Describing 'Troides celebensis selayarensis' for the first time.

 

Larsen,T.: "Swallowtail communities in Southern India".
Papilio International. 1988.
With notes on Troides minos.

 

Macfarlane: "Insect Farming and Trading - Solomon Islands".
Papilio International. Vejle. 1985.

 

Moonen: "Notes on three Asiatic Papilionidae".
Entomologische Berichten, Amsterdam. 1989.
Describing Troides magellanus ab rhadamantoides for the first time.

 

Morita: "A new subspecies of Ornithoptera victoriae from Mara Masike Is. (Small Malaita Is.), Solomon Islands".
Futao. Tottori. 2000.
Describing Ornithoptera victoriae maramasikensis for the first time.

 

Morita & Takenaka: "A new subspecies of Ornithoptera paradisea from Sorong, Irian Jaya, Indonesia".
Futao 29. 1998.
Describing Ornithoptera paradisea occidentalis for the first time.

 

Moulds: "A new subspecies of Ornithoptera priamus from North Queensland".
Australian Entomological Magazine. 1974.
Describing Ornithoptera priamus macalpinei for the first time.

 

Niculescu: "Le genre Trogonoptera Rippon est bien un genre valable".
Bulletin de la Societ項ntomologique de Mulhouse. 1980.
On the genus Trogonoptera.

 

Neukirchen: "Trogonoptera brookiana mariae n.subsp., eine neue Subspecies von den Batu-Inseln, Indonesien".
Entomologische Zeitscrift. 1993.
Describing Trogonoptera brookiana mariae for the first time.

 

Neukirchen: "Zwei neue Papilionidae (Lepidoptera) aus Indonesien".
Entomologische Zeitscrift. 1992.
Describing Trogonoptera brookiana apolloniae and Pachliopta liris deridderi for the first time.

 

Neukirchen: "Anmerkungen zur geographischen Verbreitung von Troides haliphron nebst Beschreibung einer neuen Unterart".
Entomologische Zeitschrift. 1993.
Describing Troides haliphron bellwoni for the first time and raising mf bauermanni to subspecific rank.

 

Ohya: "A revision of birdwing butterflies. Series 1 (genus Ornithoptera). Part 1 (1) (Subgenus Aetheoptera)".
Butterflies 5. 1995.
Revision of the subgenus Aetheoptera.

 

Parrott: "A new subspecies of Ornithoptera priamus from Gebe Island, Indonesia".
Papilio International. Vejle. 1985.
Describing Ornithoptera priamus gebeensis for the first time.

 

Parrott: "A new high-altitude subspecies of Ornithoptera priamus".
Papilio International. 1988.
Describing Ornithoptera priamus aureus for the first time.

 

Parrott: "A new subspecies of Troides amphrysus from Bali Island".
Papilio International. 1989.
Describing Troides amphrysus joanae for the first time.

 

Parrott: "Two new subspecies of Ornithoptera priamus".
Papilio International. 1990.
Describing Ornithoptera priamus impensus and O. priamus sterrensis for the first time.

 

Parrott: "New Borneo (Kalimantan) subspecies of Troides and Trogonoptera.
Tropical Lepidoptera. 1991.
Describing Trogonoptera brookiana haugumei, Troides amphrysus andrewei and Troides helena orientis for the first time.

 

Parrott & Deslisle: "New and interesting forms of birdwing butterflies". Part 2. Ornithoptera, subgenus Ornithoptera, species aeacus and croesus.
Papilio International. 1987.
Describing Ornithoptera aesacus mf maculatusaurum, O. aesacus ff tenebricosa, O. croesus lydius mf olivei, O. croesus lydius mf pannis and O. croesus lydius ff nudus for the first time.

 

Parrott & Deslisle: "New and interesting forms of birdwing butterflies". Part 3. Ornithoptera, subgenus Ornithoptera, species priamus.
Papilio International. 1988.
Describing Ornithoptera priamus euphorion mf beuriei, O. priamus hecuba mf femineus, O. priamus arruana mf caramalei, O. priamus poseidon mf flammeus, O. priamus poseidon mf radians, O. priamus poseidon mf fuscuocellus, O. priamus poseidon ff radialei and O. priamus poseidon ff multicolorei for the first time.

 

Parrott & Schmid: "Two subspecies of Troides from Natuna Islands, Indonesia".
The Canadian Entomologist. 1984.
Describing Troides amphrysus chrysomelas for the first time. Also giving additional notes on Troides helena bunguranensis.

 

Parrott & Schmid: "A new subspecies of Ornithoptera croesus from Morotai Island, Indonesia, and a gynandromorph of O. croesus lydius".
The Canadian Entomologist. 1984.
Describing Ornithoptera croesus toeantei for the first time.

 

Parsons: "Notes on the courtship of Troides oblongomaculatus papuensis in Papua New Guinea".
Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society. 1983.
Describing the courtship of Troides oblongomaculatus papuensis.

 

Parsons: "A phylogenetic reappraisal of the birdwing genus Ornithoptera and a new theory of its evolution in relation to Gondwanan vicariance biogeography".
Journal of Natural History. 1996.
Suggesting possible evidence that the genus Troides originates in the north from the Indian plate, while the genus Ornithoptera originates in the south from Gondwanaland.

 

Pasternak: "On the rediscovery of Ornithoptera meridionalis tarunggarensis on a new locality in Kamrau Bay, south-west Irian Jaya, Indonesia".
Transactions of the Himeji Natural History Association". 1981.
On the rediscovery of O.meridionalis in Kamrau Bay and Lake Yamur, Irian Jaya. With interesting field notes.

 

Pasternak: "Western Ornithoptera (Schoenbergia) meridionalis two forms of subspecies tarunggarensis?".
Papilio International. 1986.
On the two different forms (lowland and highland) of O.meridionalis in Kamrau Bay, Irian Jaya.

 

Pasternak: "Ray Straatman in memoriam. 1917 - 1987".
Papilio International. Vejle. 1987.
Ray Straatman in memoriam.

 

Sala: "New forms of tropical Papilionidae".
Bulletin de la Societ頓ciences Nat. 1992.
Describing Troides darsius mf clementinae and Troides darsius ff donae for the first time.


Sands & Scott (Ed.): "Conservation of the Birdwing Butterflies".
SciComEd Pty Ltd. & THECA. Marsden/Chapel Hill. 2002.
Report on the project to save the 'Richmond Birdwing' (Ornithoptera [priamus] richmondia) in Australia, with description of its life cycle. Also with reports on the status of O. paradisea and  T. aeacus formosanus ("kaguya").

 

Schmid: "Consid鲡tions sur le m⬥ d⮩thoptera allottei et sur la phylog鮩e des Ornithopt貥s".
Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society. 1970.
Suggesting Ornithoptera allottei to be a good species.

 

Schmid: "Sur quelques sous-esp裥s d'Ornithoptera victoriae".
The Canadian Entomologist. 1973.
On the studies of Ornithoptera victoriae.

 

Schmid: "Nouvelle sous-esp裥 chez Ornithoptera tithonus de l'Ile Miso쬠Indonesie".
The Canadian Entomologist. 1985.
Describing Ornithoptera tithonus misoolana for the first time.

 

So & Sato: "A new subspecies of Ornithoptera paradisea".
Trans. Lep. Soc. Japan. 1998.
Describing Ornithoptera paradisea demeter for the first time.

 

Soubadra Devy: "Butterflies of the wet forest at Kakachi, South Western Ghats, India".
Lepidoptera News. 1999.
With notes on Troides minos.

 

Sourakov: "The terrible Solomons".
Tropical Lepidoptera, Vol. 12 (Suppl. 1). 2001 [published September 2004].
On the ranching of butterflies in the Solomon Islands.

 

Straatman: "Notes on certain Lepidoptera ovipositing on plants which are toxic to their larv梮
Journal of the Lepidopterists㯣iety. 1962.
On Ornithoptera priamus richmondia and other ovipositing butterflies attracted to plants being toxic to its larvae.

 

Straatman: "Notes on the biology and hostplant associations of Ornithoptera priamus urvilleanus and O. victoriae".
Journal of the Lepidopterists튓ociety. 1969.
Notes on Ornithoptera priamus urvillianus and Aetheoptera victoriae.

 

Straatman: "The life history of Ornithoptera alexandrae".
Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society. 1971.
On the early stages of Aetheoptera alexandrae.

 

Straatman & Schmid: "Notes on the biology of Ornithoptera goliath and O. chimaera".
Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society. 1975.
Notes on Schoenbergia goliath titan and S. chimaera chimaera.

 

Treadaway: "Ray Straatman in memoriam".
Papilio International. Vejle. 1987.
Ray Straatman in memoriam.

 

Wallace: "On the phenomena of variation and geographical distribution as illustrated by the Papilionid栯f the Malayan region".
Trans. Linn. Soc. London. 1865.
On Ornithoptera priamus, O. croeusus, S. tithonus, R. hypolitus, T. helena, T. oblongomaculatus and other species.

 

Zeuner: "Studies in the Systematics of Troides and its Allies; Distribution and Phylogeny in Relation to the Geological History of the Australasian Archipelago".
Transactions of the Zoological Society of London. London. 1942.
This is Zeuner͊classical arrangement of the birdwing butterflies.

 

 

Books which I have not yet seen:

 

D'Abrera: "Birdwing Butterflies of the World".
2003. 354 pp incl 158 colour plates. 1 colour map.
Despite of title similarily with d'Abrera's "Birdwing Butterflies of the world" from 1975, this is a completely new work, with new text and new plates.

 

von Kn䧥n: "Ornithoptera".
MGG Verlag Frankenbach. 1997. 288 pp. 144 colour plates.
This is a new book which I have not yet seen. It is said to follow the traditions of Haugum & Low's "Monograph of the Birdwing Butterflies". This sounds very encouraging, but as long as the people in my local libraries refuse even to attempt to borrow books from libraries abroad, I will be unable to judge the book myself.
It should be noted, however, that this book treats the Ornithoptera group (genera Aetheoptera, Ornithoptera and Schoenbergia) only, thus leaving out the genera Ripponia, Trogonoptera and Troides.

 

Papers which I have not yet seen (I shall be much obliged if anyone can supply me copies of these papers, as well as other relevant papers not listed here):
 

Anon: "Ornithoptera allottei a natural hybrid".
Papilio International. 1989.

 

Arima & Morimoto: "Two new subspecies of Indonesian butterflies from Serua Island".
Futao 7. 1991.
Describing 'Troides haliphron rikyu' (=Troides staudingeri rikyu) for the first time.

 

Attal: "Une nouvelle forme de l'espece Schoenbergia paradisea presumee hybride s.paradisea arfakensis x S. paradisea chrysanthemum".
Lep. Papilionidae. 1987.

 

Blandin: "Etude sur le genre Ornithoptera; remarques preliminaires sur les relations phylogeniques entre Ornithoptera alexandrae, Ornithoptera victoriae et Ornithoptera priamus".
Alexanor. 1973.

 

Blandin: "Etude d'Ornithoptera priamus miokensis".
Alexanor. 1972.

 

Buchou: "Les Ornithoptera (insectes lepidopteres) indo-australiens".
Bulletin de la Societ頤es Sciences Naturelles de l'Ouest de la France. 1995.

 

Caasi & Morallo-Rejesus: "Responses of the common birdwing, Troides rhadamantus, to Aristolochia tagala and A. elegans".
Philippine Entomologist. 1997.

 

Carey, Pickford: "The occurrence of Troides helena in Hong Kong".
Journal of the Hong Kong branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1976.

 

Cody: "The elusive butterfly farms of New Guinea".
Exotic Entomology Group Newsletter. 1983.

 

Dupont: "De rupsen en popen van Troides a. amphrysus Cr en Papilio doson evemonides Honr".
Ent. Med. Ned.-Indie. 1936.

 

Erhardt: "Preferences and non-preferences for nectar constituents in Ornithoptera priamus poseidon".
Oecologia (Heidelberg). 1992.

 

Gayck: "Zucht von Troides helena cerberus aus Thailand (Insel Phuket)".
Entomologische Zeitschrift. 1992.
On Troides helena cerberus.

 

Goh: "Life history of Trogonoptera brookiana albescens in Malaysia".
Tropical Lepidoptera. 1994.

 

Hancock & Orr: "Ornithoptera euphorion: Species or subspecies".
Australian Entomologist. 1997.
Suggesting Ornithoptera euphorion to be a sister-species of O. richmondia, not a subspecies of O. priamus.

 

Hanefusa: "A list of butterflies from Karimata Island, Indonesia".
Futao 9.1992.
Describing Troides helena sugimotoi for the first time.

 

Haugum: "Notes on the Aristolochia of the Papuan region with particular reference to the larval foodplant of the Ornithoptera".
Lep. Group 68 Newsletter. 1981.

 

Haugum & Low: "A note on the Natuna birdwing, Trogonoptera brookiana natunensis, with a description of the male".
Papilio International. 1983.
Describing the male of Trogonoptera brookiana natunensis for the first time.

 

Hetz, Psota & Wasserthal: "Roles of aorta, ostia and tracheae in heartbeat and respiratory gas exchange in pupae of Troides rhadamantus and Ornithoptera priamus".
International-Journal-of-Insect-Morphology-and-Embryology. 1999.

 

Jumalon: "Comparative study of the life histories and food plant specificity of the birdwing butterflies Troides rhadamantus rhadamantus and Troides magellanus magellanus".
Philippine Scientist. 1978.

 

Low: "A proposed revised and modified generic table of the males of Troides Hand its allies".
(Unpublished). 1972.

 

Miller: "Phylogenetic studies in the Papilionidae".
Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1987.
Cladistic analyses of relationships among genera in subfamily Papilionidae.

 

Miyauchi: "On the early stages of Troides helena cerberus from Malaysia".
Tokurana. 1983.

 

Mizanuma: "Aberrant forms of Birdwing Butterflies".
The world of Insects. 1980.

 

Morita: "A new subspecies of Ornithoptera tithonus from Timika, Irian Jaya, Indonesia".
Futao 28. 1998.
Describing Schoenbergia tithonus makikoae for the first time.

 

Morita: "A new subspecies of Troides amphrysus from Langkawi Is., Malaysia".
Wallace. 1996.
Describing Troides amphrysus naokoae for the first time.

 

Moucha: "Ornithoptera priamus in the Moluccas".
Lepidopterologiske Meddelelser. 1984.

 

Nishida, Weintraub, Feeny, Fukami: "Aristolochic acids from Thottea spp. (Aristolochiaceae) and the osmeterial secretions of Thottea-feeding troidine swallowtail larvae".
Journal of chemical ecology. 1993.
On Troides amphrysus.

 

Ohya: "A new subspecies of Troides amphrysus from Simeulue Island, Indonesia".
Gekkan-Mushi. 1985.
Describing Troides amphrysus simeuluensis for the first time.

 

Ohya: "The birth of the golden birdwing butterflies Ornithoptera allottei is confirmed as hybrid".
Butterflies 4. 1993.

 

Ohya: "A revision of birdwing butterflies. Series 1 (genus Ornithoptera). Part 1 (1)".
Butterflies 5. 1993.

 

Ohya: "A revision of birdwing butterflies. Series 1 (genus Ornithoptera). Part 1 (2)".
Butterflies 6. 1993.

 

Ohya: "A revision of birdwing butterflies. Series 1 (genus Ornithoptera). Part 2 (1)".
Butterflies 12. 1995.

 

Ohya: "A revision of birdwing butterflies. Series 1 (genus Ornithoptera). Part 2 (3)".
Butterflies 17. 1997.

 

Ohya & Nagai: "A revision of the subspecies of Troides andromache".
Rhopalocerists Magazine. 1981.

 

Okano: "Some notes on the Ornithoptera butterflies, with description of two new aberrant forms".
Rhopalocerists Magazine. 1980.
Describing Ornithoptera euphorion ff atsukoae and O. priamus euphorion mf kogane for the first time.

 

Okano,M. & Okano,J.: "A new subspecies of Troides amphrysus from the Tambelan Islands, Indonesia".
Nature & Insects. 1987.
Describing Troides amphrysus tambelanensis for the first time.

 

Okano,M. & Okano,T.: "New and little known butterflies from the Visayan Islands, the Philippines".
Rhopalocera philippina. 1994.
Describing Troides magellanus magellanus f cebuensis for the first time.

 

Parrott & Deslisle: "New and Interesting forms of birdwing butterflies. Part 1. Ornithoptera, subgenus Schoenbergia".
Papilio International. 1986.
Describing Schoenbergia chimaera charybdis f quinquemaculata, S. paradisea arfakensis f oculisaureus, S. rothschildi f illustris, S. rothschildi f sublustris, S. tithonus misresiana f crepusculum and S. tithonus misresiana f rubicunda for the first time.

 

Parsons: "Conservation of the birdwing butterflies: not hard if we try".
Anon. Invertebrates in captivity. 1994.

 

Parsons: "Conservation of the birdwing butterflies: not hard if we try".
Decline and Conservation of butterflies in Japan. 1996.

 

Parsons, Scriber, Tsubaki & Lederhouse: "The early stages and ecology of Ornithoptera tithonus".
Swallowtail butterflies: their ecology and evolutionary biology. 1995. (p. 263-264, 401-404).

 

Rumbucher: "Eine neue Unterart von Schoenbergia goliath sowie zwei markante Individualformen in des Gattung Ornithoptera".
Entomologische Zeitung. 1973.

 

Sands & Sawyer: "An example of natural hybridization between Troides oblongomaculatus papuensis and Ornithoptera priamus poseidon".
Journal of the Australian Entomological Society. 1977.

 

Schmid: "Deux cas de gynandromorphisme chez les Ornithopteres".
The Canadian Entomologist. 1973.

 

Schmid: "Une propose d'hybridisme chez les Ornithoptera".
Tijds van Entomologie. 1973.

 

Schmitz & Wasserthal: "Antennal thermoreceptors and wing-thermosensitivity of heliotherm butterflies: their possible role in thermoregulatory behaviour".
Journal of Insect Physiology. 1993.
On Troides rhadamantus plateni.

 

So: "A new subspecies of Ornithoptera paradisea".
Transactions of the Lepidopterological Society of Japan. 1998.
Describing Schoenbergia paradisea demeter for the first time.

 

Straatman: "Hybridization of the Birdwing Butterflies in PNG".
Tyo To Ga. 1976.

 

Stobbart: "The birdwing butterflies in the Hancock Museum and Tyne & Wear Museums".
Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumbria. 1997.

 

Szent-Ivany: "A new race of Ornithoptera goliath Ob. from the sea level in southwestern PNG".
Pacific Ins. 1975.

 

Szent-Ivany & Carver: "Notes on the biology of some lepidoptera of the Territory of Papua New Guinea with the description of the early stages of Ornithoptera meridionalis".
Trans PNG Sci Soc. 1967.

 

Yung: "The population genetics of Troides species of Peninsular Malaysia and descriptions of the new female forms".
Tokurana. 1982.
Describing Troides amphrysus ruficollis ff poonkuanyaowi and T. helena cerberus ff chongkiakwangi for the first time.
 

TIP:
To view the images of a species, first go to the Systematic list of the birdwing butterflies (see below).
Then click on the name of the desired species.

 

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