Butterflies of Norway




During the preparation of this web site the following works have been consulted:


Aagesen, S.: "Ny abberation: Mesoacidalia aglaja ab. sinenigra".
Lepidoptera, K宨avn, 1977. III:2, 48-50.
The original description of Argynnis aglaja f. sinenigra.


Aarvik, L, Berggren, K & Hansen, L.O. (Editors): "Catalogus Lepidopterorum Norvegiae".
LepArb, Zool Mus, NISK, Oslo. 2000. 192 pp.
A catalogue of all Norwegian Lepidoptera, listing 2123 species, with comments to hundreds of species. This publication is the result of the impressive work carried out by the so-called LepArb group (Lepidopterologisk Arbeidsgruppe). 10 enthusiasts (Sigurd A. Bakke, Yngvar Berg, ةstein Berg, Kai Berggren, Bj. Fjellstad, Lars Ove Hansen, Kai Myhr, Heimo O. P騶nen, Svein Svendsen and Leif Aarvik) voluntarily spent most of their free time in the period 1986 - 2000 (indeed some of them still do) to map all Norwegian Lepidoptera. Their extremely strict self-imposed rules have made their data base the most accurate national data base in the world. It is a fact that the group has personally examined an estimated 95% of all Norwegian specimens existing in collections, both public and private.


Andersson, K.: "D岧r䳦j䲩len - en hotad raritet".
ֳtgota Correspondenten, Link੮g, 06.07.1988.
On the threats to Pararge achine in mainland Sweden.


Anonymous [Petersen, V.]: "J涮ligt forekommende Sommerfugle".
Nyt dansk Forlagskonsortium, K宨avn. 1891. 61 pp plus 4 colour plates.
On European butterflies and moths.


Anonymous: "Kr䶡nde omfamning kan d䡠eklandskapet".
ֳtgota Correspondenten, Link੮g, 04.07.1990.
On the decline of Swedish oak forests and the impact on Pararge achine.


Anonymous: "Parnassius mnemosyne - en sunndalsk spesialitet. Arten er ikke truet".
Aura Avis, 06.07.1991: 16.
On the abundance of Parnassius mnemosyne in Sunndalen.


Balkhed, T.: "Aktion f⠡t r䤤a fj䲩l i Sturefors".
ֳtgota Correspondenten, Link੮g, 26.09.1988.
On the work to save Pararge achine in mainland Sweden.


Bengtsson, H.: "Apollo 롲 sakta men s䫥rt".
Sveriges Natur, 4, 1989.
On the status of Parnassius apollo in Sweden.


Berg, خ & Stenl묠J.A.: "Sommerfugler i Nord-Norge".
Insekt-Nytt, Oslo, 3:11-14, 1988.
Summary from a collecting trip to North Norway.


Berggren, K., Svendsen, S. & Aarvik, L.: "En sommerfuglekskursjon til Gudbrandsdalen og Dovre 14.-16.VII.1978".
Atalanta Norvegica, Oslo, 3:4, 91-95, 1979.
Field notes from an excursion to Gudbrandsdalen Valley and Dovre Mountain, Norway.


Berggren, K., Svendsen, S. & Aarvik, L.: "En sommerfuglekskursjon til Gudbrandsdalen og Dovre II. 14.-16.VII.1979".
Atalanta Norvegica, Oslo, 3:4, 91-95, 1979.
Field notes from an excursion to Gudbrandsdalen Valley and Dovre Mountain, Norway.

Bird, C.D., Hilchie, G.J., Kondla, N.G., Pike, E.M. & Sperling, F.A.H.: "Alberta Butterflies".
The Provincial Museum of Alberta, Edmonton. 1995. 350 pp incl several colour photos and colour maps to each species, as well as drawings of many larval host plants.
A fine book, describing all butterflies species found in Alberta, Canada.


Bjerg, M.: "Sukkerlokning af dagsommerfugle".
Lepidoptera, K宨avn, 1997. VII:4, 109-111.
On the technique of collecting butterflies with the help of red wine, sugar, rum and a rope.


Bjerg, M.: "Erfaringer med at finde 槠af og kl櫫e Satyrium ilicis".
Lepidoptera, K宨avn, 2000. VII:9, 299-302.
On the rearing of Satyrium ilicis.


Bryk, F.: "Une nouvelle mnemosyne du sud de la Laponie".
Lambillionea, 4:42-45, 1940.
Describing Parnassius mnemosyne nordstr�/I> for the first time.


Common, I.F.B & Waterhouse, D.F.: "Butterflies of Australia" (Revised Edition).
Angus & Robertson Publishers, Sydney. 1981. 682 pp plus 49 colour plates, distribution maps to all species.
Covering all butterflies of Australia.


Dahl, B.: "Sommerfugler i Naturen". Vol. 1: Nord-Europa.
J. W. Cappelens Forlag, Oslo. 1980. 127 pp incl colour drawings of all species.
An excellent book covering the butterflies of Fennoscandia, Baltic states and the British Isles. Also very useful as an identification guide.


Dahl, B.: "Fj䲩lar i Naturen". Vol. 2: Mellaneuropa.
Wahlstr�amp; Widstrand, Stockholm. 1981. 132 pp incl colour drawings of all species.
Same as the previous book, covering all butterfly species of Central Europe.


Douwes, P.: "Terrtitorial behaviour in Heodes virgaureae with particular reference to visual stimuli".
Norwegian Journal of Entomology, Oslo, 1975, 22:2, 143-153.
On the territorial behaviour of Lycaena virgaureae.


Eliasson, C.U., Ryrholm. N & G䲤enfors, U: "Fj䲩lar: Dagfj䲩lar".
Nationalnyckeln till Sveriges Flora och Fauna, DE 50-54. Uppsala, 2005.
This is the first volume of the Encyclopedia of the Swedish Flora and Fauna, an ambiguous book project that will cover all life forms found in Sweden. This book covers all butterfly species found in the Nordic countries (Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway and Iceland) in an excellent way. With identification keys, maps and historical maps to all species.


Ellefsen, G.E. & Hansen, S.: "Observasjoner av Aporia crataegi i ytre Telemark".
Atalanta Norvegica, Oslo, 3:2, 57, 1977.
On the distribution of Aporia crataegi in Telemark, Norway.


Gogstad, G.: "Acid rain and the disappearance of the apollo butterfly (Parnassius apollo) from coastal areas in Norway".
Norwegian Journal of Entomology, Oslo and Stavanger, 2000, 47:1, 25-28.
Suggesting that the sudden disappearance of Parnassius apollo from all coastal areas in Norway may have been caused by other factors that acid rain.


Gorbunov, P.Y.: "The Butterflies of Russia: classification, genitalia, keys for identification".
Thesis, Ekaterinburg. 2001. 320 pp incl 13 colour plates of selected species and 41 plates of genitalia.
Treating all Russian butterfly species with distribution maps to each species.


Grieshuber, J & Lamas, G: "A Synonymic List of the genus Colias".
Mitt. M㨮 Ent. Gaz., 97: 131-171. M㨥n, 2007.
Checklist of the genus Genus with synonyms.


Gustafsson, B. (Ed.), Svensson, I., Imby, L., Emlquist, H., Hellberg, H., Palmqvist, G.: " Catalogus Lepidopterorum Sueciae".
Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm. 1987.
Checklist of all Swedish Lepidoptera with distribution tables, notes and bibliography.


Hammerstedt, O.: "Parnassius mnemosyne ssp argiope in Blekinge 1984 - 1988".
Fauna Norvegica, Serie B, Oslo, 1989, 36:1, 88-89.
On the studies of Parnassius mnemosyne argiope in Blekinge l䮬 Sweden.


Hansen, L.O. & Aarvik, L: "Sjeldne Insekter i Norge." 3: Sommerfugler (Lepidoptera).
NINA 2000. 145 pp.
A report on rare butterflies and moths in Norway.


Henriksen, H.J.: "Vacciniina optilete ssp. clara til sammenligning med den nominotypiske optilete".
Lepidoptera, K宨avn, 1977. III:4, 117-120.
Comparing Albulina optilete clara from Denmark with the nominate subspecies.


Henriksen, H.J. & Kreutzer, I.: "Skandinaviens Dagsommerfugle i Naturen". Later, same year, published in English under the name "The Butterflies of Scandinavia in Nature".
Skandinavisk Bogforlag, Odense. 1982. 215 pp incl 102 colour plates.
Covering the butterflies of Norway, Sweden and Denmark, 122 species. With many interesting notes on geographical variation, habitats and behaviour. The photos of localities are good, representing the species' Scandinavian habitats. The taxonomic notes, however, are somewhat confusing.


Higgins, L.G.: "An Illustrated Catalogue of the Palearctic Melitaea".
Tranactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, London. 1941. 91 : 7, pp 175 - 365, with 16 colour plates and text figures.
A catalogue of the genus Melitaea.


Higgins, L.G.: "A descriptive Catalogue of the Palaearctic Euphydryas".
Tranactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, London. 1950. 102 : 12, pp 435 - 496, with text figures.
A catalogue of the genus Euphydryas.


Higgins, L.G.: "A descriptive Catalogue of the genus Mellicta Billberg and its species, with supplementary notes on the genera Melitaea and Euphydryas".
Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, London. 1955. 106 : 1, pp 1 - 131, plus one colour plate, one b/w plate and text figures.
A catalogue of the genus Mellicta, with additional notes to the two previous papers.


Higgins, L.G.: "The Classification of European Butterflies".
Collins, London. 1975. 320 pp.
A useful book with drawings of male genitalia of all West European butterfly species.


Higgins, L.G. & Riley, N.D.: "Sommerfugler. Europas og Nordvest-Afrikas dagsommerfugler".
Tiden Norsk Forlag, Oslo. 1972. 366 pp plus 60 colour plates, distribution maps to all species.
Covering all butterflies of West Europe and Northwest Africa. Also the English original, "A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Britain and Europe", was used during the preparation of this web site.


Holtan, D & Grimstad, K.J.: "Funn av mnemosynesommarfugl Parnassius mnemosyne i Stranda, M堯g Romsdal".
Fauna 53(3) 163-167, 2000.
On the distribution of Parnassius mnemosyne.


Howe, W.H.: "The Butterflies of North America".
Doubleday & Co, New York, NY. 1975. 633 + 10 pp incl 97 colour plates.
Covering all butterflies of America north of Mexico.


Imby, L.: "On䩧 fridlysning har slopats p堇otland".
Unknown origin, ?1992.
On the lifting of the prohibition of collection Pararge achine in Gotland Island, Sweden.


Janzon, L.-Ů: "Apollofj䲩len h嬬er st䬬ningarna".
Fauna och Flora, 82 200-201, 1987.
On the status of Parnassius apollo in Sweden.


Johansen, S.: "Kl櫮ing af Pararge aegeria ved 20 grader Celsius".
Lepidoptera, K宨avn, 1979. III:7, 216-219.
On the studies of Pararge aegeria in wet summer conditions.


Johansen, S.: "Brenthis Ino. Nyt om dens udvikling".
Lepidoptera, K宨avn, 1985. IV:9, 317-323.
Studies of the immature stages of Brenthis ino in Denmark.


Karsholt, O. & Stadel Nielsen, P.: "Revidert katalog over de danske Sommerfugle".
Entomologisk Forening & Lepidopterologisk Forening, K宨avn & جsted. 1998.
Checklist of all Danish Lepidoptera with distribution tables, notes and bibliography.


KeskᬠT. & Luig, J.: "Phenology and distribution of the Clouded Apollo Parnassius mnemosyne in Estonia, with a description of a new subspecies from south-eastern Estonia".
Atalanta 28 (1/2): 17-20, 1997.
Describing Parnassius mnemosyne viidaleppi for the first time.


Kj㴡d, E.: "M률eksemplarer av Coenonympha pamphilus fra Tretten (OS) og omegn".
Atalanta Norvegica, Oslo, 3:5, 135-136, 1979.
Notes on particularly dark specimens of Coenonympha pamphilus from a locality in the Tretten district, Norway.


Kreutzer, I.: "Europas svalehaler - beskyttelse og forsvar".
Naturens Verden, 201-213, 1988.
On the status of European Papilionids.


Kronborg, J.: "Sommerfugltur til Telemarken".
Lepidoptera, K宨avn, 1995. VI:9, 231-234.
From a collecting trip to Telemark.


Kudrna, O.: "Butterflies of Europe". Vol. 1: Concise Bibiliography of European Butterflies.
Aula-Verlag Wiesbaden. 1985. 447 pp.
Lists not less than 5319 bibliographical references to the European Papilionoidea, with emphasis on the period 1901 - 1983. With a subject index (systematic, by country, by key word).


Kudrna, O. (Ed.): "Butterflies of Europe". Vol. 2: Introduction to Lepidopterology.
Aula-Verlag Wiesbaden. 1990. 557 pp.
A very informative work on the study of butterflies. Among the features treated are; morphology - early stages & adult structure and function, phylogeny, genetics, butterfly chromosomes and their application in systematics and phylogeny, enzyme electrophoretic methods, experimental breeding, parasitoids, behaviour, movements of butterflies. There is also a chapter on "Who's Who in European lepidopterology", listing hundreds of personalities, their background and main studies, their collections and the whereabouts of these.


Kudrna, O.: "Butterflies of Europe". Vol. 8: Aspects of the Conservation of Butterflies in Europe.
Aula-Verlag Wiesbaden. 1986. 323 pp. 57 text figures, incl many photos of European habitats.
With discussions on the decline of European butterflies, its causes and countermeasures and suggestions on conservation programmes. A chapter on Applied Taxonomy also includes a very useful glossary of taxonomic terms.


Kudrna, O.: "A Revision of the Genus Hipparchia Fabricius".
E.W.Classey Books, Faringdon. 1977. 300 pp incl 48 b/w plates.
A taxonomic revision of the genus Hipparchia.


Kudrna, O.: "The Distribution Atlas of European Butterflies". 
Oedippus, Schweinfurt, 2002. 344 pp.
This is the first ever distribution atlas covering all European butterflies, containing 451 dot distribution maps covering Europe from Ireland in the west to the Urals in the east.


Langer, T. W.: "Skandinaviens Dagsommerfugle".
J.Fr.Clausens Forlag, K宨avn. 1970. 147 pp with b/w illustrations.
On the Scandinavian butterflies.


Larsen, T.B.: "The Butterflies of Egypt".
Apollo Books, Svendborg. 1990. 112 pp incl 8 colour plates, whereof 2 of localities.
Covering the butterflies of Egypt, 58 species.


Larsen, T.B.: "The Butterflies of Lebanon".
National Council for Scientific Research Lebanon, Beirut. 1974. 256 pp plus 8 colour plates.
Covering the butterflies of Lebanon, 139 species.


Larsen, T.B.: "The Butterflies of the Yemen Arab Republic".
Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab Biologiske Skrifter, Copenhagen. 1982. 23:3. 87 pp incl 3 colour and 2 b/w plates.
Covering the butterflies of former North Yemen, 75 species.


Larsen, T.B. & Larsen, K.: "The Butterflies of Oman".
Bartholomew Books, Edinburgh. 1980. 80 pp incl colour photos of all species.
Covering the butterflies of Oman, 72 species.


Larsen, T.B. & Nakamura, I.: "The Butterflies of East Jordan".
Entomologist's Gazette, Vol. 34, pp 135-208. 1983. 2 colour plates.
Covering the butterflies of Jordan, 81 species.


Lokki, J, Malmstr�K.K., Suomalainen, E.: "Migration of Vanessa cardui and Plutella xylostella to Spitsbergen in the summer of 1978".
Notulae Entomologicae 58: 121-123, 1978.
On the occurrence of Vanessa cardui in the Arctic Norwegian island Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago (78oN).


Lund, T.B.: "The food plant of Parnassius apollo jotunensis".
Norsk Entomologisk tidsskrift, Oslo, 1971. 18:2, 136.
First confirmation on the larval foodplant of Parnassius apollo jotunensis; Sedum rosea.


Maitland Emmet, A & Heath, J (Editors): "The moths and Butterflies of Great Britain and Ireland". Vol. 7, Part 1.
Harley Books, Colchester. 1989. 370 pp incl 24 colour plates, distribution maps and many text figures.
A fine book covering all butterflies of the British Isles.


Meulengracht-Madsen, J.: "Guldhalen, Thecla betulae".
Lepidoptera, K宨avn, 1993. VI:5, 117-122.
Hints on rearing Thecla betulae.


Meulengracht-Madsen, J.: "Myrer eller ej".
Lepidoptera, K宨avn, 1993. VI:6, 161-167.
On the pupation of Neozephyrus quercus without the presence of ant nests.


Meulengracht-Madsen, J.: "Kl櫮ing af Apatura iris".
Lepidoptera, K宨avn, 1995. VI:9, 219-226.
Hints on rearing Apatura iris.


Miller, L.D. & Martin Brown, F.: "A Catalogue/Checklist of the Butterflies of America North of Mexico". Vol. 7, Part 1.
The Lepidopterists' Society, USA. 1981. 280 pp.
A checklist of the butterflies of America north of Mexico, listing all species, synonyms, auctor, type locality, etc.


Nordstr� F.: "De Fennoskandiska Dagfj䲩larnas Utbredning".
Lunds Universitets Ųsskrift. 1955. 2:51:1. 177 pp, distrubution maps to all species.
Distribution maps and notes on all butterfly species of Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark.


Norgaard, I.: "Masseoptr椥n af sommerfugle".
Lepidoptera, K宨avn, 1992. VI:4, 95-102.
On rare Danish lepidoptera, as Limenitis camilla, Glaucopsyche alcon and Satyrium pruni that occasionally can occur in abundance.


Norgaard, I.: "Erindringer: Fra 岥ne 1936 - 1945 - fangst af S. pruni og L. dispar".
Lepidoptera, K宨avn, 1994. VI:7/8, 189-192.
Reminiscences of the collecting of Satyrium pruni and Lycaena dispar rutilus in Denmark in the years 1936-1945.


Opheim, M.: "Macro-Lepidoptera from the mountains of Southern Norway. I".
Norsk Entomologisk Tidsskrift, Oslo, 1943. 6:4/5, 187-193.
The original description of Aricia eumedon sundalensis.


Opheim, M.: "Macro-Lepidoptera from the mountains of Southern Norway. II".
Norsk Entomologisk Tidsskrift, Oslo, 1945. 7:3/4, 114-121.
The original description of Parnassius apollo jotunensis.


Opheim, M.: "Macrolepidoptera accidentally introduced into Norway".
Norsk Entomologisk Tidsskrift, Oslo, 1960, XI:3-4, 176-180.
Notes on foreign macrolepidoptera accidentally introduced to Norway, including Danaus plexippus, Oeneis nevadensis and Vanessa indica vulcanica.


Opheim, M.: "Notes on Parnassius apollo jotunensis".
Atalanta, Oslo, 2:1, 14-16, 1972.
Notes on the distribution and larval food plant of Parnassius apollo jotunensis.


Opheim, M.: "Litt om sommerfugljegere i forrige 岨undre I".
Atalanta Norvegica, Oslo, 3:7, 175-180, 1981.
Reminiscences of 19th century Norwegian lepidopterists; Lauritz M. Esmark, Johan Heinrich S. Siebke, vicar Deinboll, Niels G. Moe, Nicolai B. Aall, Sparre Schneider, Wilhelm Maribo Sch宬 Georg Sandberg, Johan Rygge and others.


Opheim, M.: "Litt om sommerfugljegere i forrige 岨undre II".
Atalanta Norvegica, Oslo, 4:1, 21-24, 1982.
2nd part of Opheim's reminiscences of 19th century Norwegian lepidopterists; Sparre Schneider, O.J. Lie-Pettersen, Wilhelm Maribo Sch宬 Robert Collett, Hans Str적. Hagemann, Georg Sandberg and others.


Opheim, M.: "Parnassius mnemosyne in Sunndalen (MRI)".
Atalanta Norvegica, Oslo, 4:2, 25-28, 1983.
Notes on Parnassius mnemosyne in Sunndalen, Norway.


Opheim, M.: "Litt om en gammel samling av sommerfugler fra Vestfold".
Atalanta Norvegica, Oslo, 4:2, 29-30, 1983.
On the rediscovery of the butterfly collection of S. S㢥rg.


Petersen, B.: "Die Geographische Variation einiger Fennoskandischer Lepidopteren".
Zoologiska Bidrag fr宠Uppsala, Band 26. 1947. pp. 329-531.
A revision of 16 species of Pieridae and Nymphalidae from Fennoscandia. Describing M. athalia fennica, A. "aphirape" montana, A. "aphirape" subargentata and A. "arsilache" scandinavica as new taxa.


Pettersson, B.: "Hur l䮧e finns fj䲩len kvar?".
ֳtgota Correspondenten, unknown date.
On the status of Pararge achine in Sweden.


Pettersson, R.B. & Berggren, S.: "Tynder졮det i Medelpad - en nordlig utpost f⠍ 䮧s- och hagmarkinsekter".
Natur i Norr, Ume嬠13,1:37-46, 1994.
On butterflies and moths in Medelpad, Sweden.


R顬, P.: "Lepidopteres nouveaux principalement jurassiens".
M魯ires de Comit頤e Liaison pour les Recherches Ecofaunistiques dans le Jura. Besan篮. 1988. pp 17-28. Text figures.
Describing Leptidea lorkovicii for the first time. (The taxon was later named Leptidea reali Reissinger, 1990, on the basis of the name lorkovicii being a nom. praeocc.).


Reissinger, E.J.: "Checkliste Pieridae der Westpalaearktis (Europa, Nordwestafrika, Kaukasus, Kleinasien".
Atalanta, Wꢵrg. [1990]. 20: 149-185.
A checklist of the Pieridae of the Western Palaearctic Region.


Schei, P.J. & Lein, B.: "Vedtak om midlertidig vern av 2 sommerfugler og 11 orkid顲ter".
Insekt-Nytt, Oslo, 3: 11-13, 1989.
On the legal protection of Parnassius apollo and P. mnemosyne in Norway.


Schl岬 M.: "Danske lepidopterologer i Skandinaviens fjelde".
Atalanta, Oslo, 1:2, 74-97, 1968.
Stories from butterfly collecting in Scandinavia's mountains.


Schl岬 M.: "Danske lepidopterologer i Skandinaviens fjelde II".
Atalanta, Oslo, 2:1, 1-13, 1972.
Stories from butterfly collecting in Scandinavia's mountains.


Scott, J.A.: "The Butterflies of North America. A Natural History and Field Guide".
Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. 1986. 583 + 13 pp plus 64 colour plates, distribution maps to all species.
A fine book covering all butterflies of America north of Mecixo.


Stadel Nielsen, P: "Resultat af Lepidopterologisk Forenings aktivitetsunders嬳e".
Lepidoptera, V, 7/7, 248-251, 1989.
On the status of Danish butterflies.


Strann, K.-B., Nilssen, A.C. & Straumfors, P.: "Invasion of Camberwell Beauty Nymphalis antiopa and Red Admiral Vanessa atalanta in Norway".
Fauna Norvegica, Serie B, Oslo, 1995, 42:2, 113-124.
On the abundance of Nymphalis antiopa and Vanessa atalanta in North Norway 1989, 1990 and 1991.


St킯witz, C.: "Uttale av latinske dyrenavn".
Insekt-Nytt, Oslo, 2: 16-19, 1985.
On the pronunciation of scientific names.


St킯witz, C.: "Litt om latinske forkortelser og uttrykk".
Insekt-Nytt, Oslo, 4: 25-26, 1988.
On the meaning of scientific names.


Svensson, I.: "Debatt: "Vad kan entomologerna g⡠f⠮aturv岤en?".
FaZett, Lund, 33-35, 1989.
On the threats to Swedish butterflies.


Tennent, J: "The Butterflies of Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia".
Gem Publishing Company, Wallingford. 1996. 218 + XX pp incl 32 colour plates of specimens, 6 colour plates of butterlfies in nature and 12 colour plates of habitats.
An good book covering all 175 taxa found in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia.


Tj楬 I.I. & Trolle, L.: "Sommerfugler i Norge".
H. Aschehoug & Co, Oslo. 1999. 232 pp incl colour plates (nice drawings) and distribution maps to all species.
A good book covering all the butterflies of North Europe (north of the 51st parallel. The original Danish title (from 1994) is "Dagsommerfugle i Nordvest-Europa".


Tshikolovets, V.V.: "The Butterflies of Pamir".
Frantisek Slamka, Bratislava. 1997. 285 pp incl 19 colour plates (whereof 3 of localities), 6 plates of male genitalia, distribution maps to all species.
An excellent book covering the butterflies Pamir, 115 species.


Tuzov, V.K. (Editor): "Guide to the Butterflies of Russia and Adjacent Territories". Vol. 1.
Pensoft, Sofia & Moscow. 1997. 480 pp incl 79 colour plates, some text figures.
A fine book covering all butterflies of the families Hesperiidae, Papilionidae, Pieridae and Satyridae of the former USSR.


Tuzov, V.K. (Editor): "Guide to the Butterflies of Russia and Adjacent Territories". Vol. 2.
Pensoft, Sofia & Moscow. 200. 580 pp incl 88 colour plates, some text figures.
A fine book covering all butterflies of the families Libytheidae, Danaidae, Nympahlidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae of the former USSR.


V䩳䮥n, R, Heli桡ra, K & Somerma, P.: "Morphological variation of Parnassius mnemosyne in eastern Fennoscandia".
Ent. Scand. 22:3 353-363, 1991.
On Parnassius mnemosyne in southern Finland, eastern Sweden and Karelia.


Willumsen, N.J.: "Sommerfugle og elmesyge".
Lepidoptera, K宨avn, 1995. VI:10, 269-276.
On the elm disease and its impact on butterflies.


Wolff, N.L.: "The Lepidoptera of Greenland".
Meddelelser om Gr졮d. 159 : 11, C.A.Reitzels Forlag, Copenhagen. 1964. 74 pp plus b/w 21 plates, distribution maps to all species.
On the Lepidoptera of Greenland, 52 species whereof 5 butterflies.



Butterflies of Norway | Systematic list of the Norwegian butterflies | Bibliography
Acknowledgements | Links | Maps of Norway | Updates
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Birdwing Butterflies of the World Section | Systematic list of the Birdwing Butterflies

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